Structuring Lesson Plan for Skill Education Using the ‘AVIVA + Model’

Today the curriculums are oriented towards enhancing competencies, developing proficiency and expertise in the professional, specific, personal, and social spheres. The three resources that can make learners competent are specific knowledge, skills, and attitude and these can be acquired prior to as well as through training programs. The AVIVA model of teaching and learning has received great attention in Teacher- Education since it got published in German in 2010 and has become a trusted teaching framework suited to a rapidly changing society.

Photo 02, Source: (International Council of Nurses, 2023)

1.1 Background
India wants to Skill Up India wants to qualify for Industry 4.0. through linkage with the industry: linkage with the industry is important to create demand-driven, industry-relevant training opportunities, bridge the skill gap, and provide the industry with demand-driven skilled manpower, which in turn would create new jobs and to reinvent the landscape of skilling in India. The Government provides therefore a framework like the Bachelor Vocational (B. Voc.) program.

1.2 Relevance for the System of Higher Education in India
The number of students in India will increase sharply in the coming years. In addition to the continuing population growth, the declared goal of the Indian government to increase the student rate in the age group of 18–23-years from the current 23% to 50% by 2030 is also a factor. Around 42 million students were expected in 2020 and 71 million are expected by 2030. The challenge for the higher education sector is to meet the growth by creating adequate educational institutions while ensuring quality. The number of universities will continue to grow, with an important role for the private sector to play.

Graphic 01, Source: (BSDU, 2023)

Knowledge, Skills and Attitude are the three important aspects that make a person competent to carry out his/her job role. Here, we shall focus primarily on studying them.

Knowledge + Skill + Attitude = Competence

2.1 Attitude
The following five aspects are relevant in order to explain the attitude the trainers should adopt.
- Ought to have a willingness to offer their utmost.
- Be prepared to offer their expertise and abilities gained from their experiences (such as strong business acumen).
- Know the means of executing the task correctly and carefully.
- Be aware of all the procedures, applications, and techniques.
- Adhere to precise directions and execute the task with great care.

The following example shall help you for a better understanding:
In the Healthcare field, it is important for caregivers to possess a sense of love, compassion, and empathy toward their patients. Devoid of these qualities, they would be lacking the essence of care. The caregivers should have an attitude of sharing their knowledge so that their prior experience in performing medical procedures and expertise help the students. Additionally, trainers should have a comprehensive understanding of all the procedural techniques and the ability to give precise instructions for proper execution.

2.2 Skill
In order to apply the knowledge effectively in specific situations, it is essential to possess the necessary skills to perform psychomotor actions. These actions are developed through repeated training and practice, such as performing a medical procedure multiple times until proficiency is achieved. Additionally, the teaching methods should not only include control and instruction but also encourage learners to take an active role in managing their own learning process.
2.3 Knowledge
The trainers should possess varied knowledge.

Graphic 02, Source: (BSDU, 2023)

2.3.1 Declarative knowledge - For Learning and working
An example to illustrate the explanation.

Graphic 03, Source: (WHO Hand Hygiene adapted by BSDU, 2023)

2.3.2 Procedural knowledge- To successfully carry out a task
An example to illustrate the explanation.

Graphic 04, Source: (WHO Hand Hygiene adapted by BSDU, 2023)

2.3.3 Conditional Knowledge

To determine when and why to apply this knowledge.

Graphic 05, Source: (WHO Hand Hygiene adapted by BSDU, 2023)

2.3.4 Meta knowledge

Collection of learning strategies that we possess

Graphic 06, Source: (BSDU, 2023)

• It is a social process: That occurs in the social context
• It is a situational process: As situations provide learning experiences.
• It is self-directed: In which individuals must control and monitor their own progress.
• It is an active process: Motivation is the key factor in the active learning process.
• It is a constructive process: Which builds on existing resources.

The three-layer model of Learning

Graphic 07, Source: (BSDU, 2023)

3.1 Cognitive Strategies
Cognitive learning strategies include those processes that are directly related to the attainment, processing, and storage of information. The following two types of cognitive strategies can be differentiated as primary surface strategies and secondary deep strategies.

Graphic 07, Source: (Internet stock photo, adapted by BSDU, 2023)

3.2 Meta-Cognitive Strategies
Through Metacognitive strategies, the learners take control of their own learning process thus allowing them to independently establish their own learning objectives.

3.3 Motivational Strategies
The Motivational strategies crucially add to the readiness of learners to persevere through challenging situations and find solutions independently. The motivation level of learners is impacted by various factors, including their ability to set achievable goals, maintain a positive mindset, and cultivate their own interest in the subject matter.

3.4 Internal and External Views of Teaching and Learning
When it comes to teaching and learning, there are two views of it. An external and an internal view.

Graphic 08, Source: (BSDU, 2023)

3.4.1 Internal View of Teaching and Learning
Primarily an internal view of teaching and learning pertains to the actions and processes of the learners. This includes asking questions, combining different content areas, defining goals and procedures, and building and applying resources to achieve a specific objective. These actions are a part of an active learning process where learners engage themselves in hands-on activities and critical thinking to enhance their understanding of the subject matter.

3.4.2 External View of Teaching and Learning
Secondarily an external view refers to the structure of a lesson and how it creates a rhythm. There are two types of external procedures: Direct and Indirect.

- Direct Procedures
Direct procedures are those that are specified by the teacher. For example, the teacher may present dismantled pieces of a puzzle to the learner and demonstrate how to fit them together to create a complete picture.

- Indirect Procedures
Indirect procedures, on the other hand, involve presenting the learner with a complex problem and asking them to figure out a way to solve it. This approach requires the learner to determine the components required from the domains of knowledge, skill, and attitude to be acquired to solve the problem.

The AVIVA model by Städeli et al. (2013) describes the planning of effective teaching on the basis of the five elementary phases and a general aspect, the + which was added in 2018.

The AVIVA model serves to structure lessons and as an orientation grid, in addition to being an evaluation tool that aids by bringing the essential phases of good teaching into a clear process. Through the targeted design of content and teaching methods in each phase, competencies are not built up arbitrarily, but their promotion is systematically and transparently planned and implemented. In addition, teaching units can be made varied and interactive using various methods. If the lessons are based on the phases (+ = creating a good learning atmosphere, Phase I- Arriving and engaging e.g. readiness to engage oneself in new things, Phase II- Activating prior knowledge of what is readily available, Phase III- Informing where the actual learning starts, Phase IV- Processing means to practice in order to absorb new material, Phase V- evaluation means to assess) and designed with suitable methods, it can be ensured that students shall complete the learning process.

‘Competence-oriented teaching through the five phases of AVIVA+ model in planning and implementing lessons’

4.1 Five phases of teaching
The abbreviation "AVIVA" refers to the five phases that are centrally involved in making a learning-effective setting. The "AVIVA+" scheme also provides a good learning atmosphere, which is also essential for a successful lesson (Sprachraum 2018). It looks like this in germen:

Graphic 09: adapted visualization of the AVIVA+ model, Source: (AVIVA-Modell_Kurzinformation_LehreA-Z_HDWB)

4.2 Direct or Indirect Approach
Even before the concrete didactic design of the five+ phases, teachers should consider whether and to what extent it makes sense to enable self-directed learning. The consideration for the design should therefore be whether the procedure in the respective phase is directly guided by the instruction of the teacher or indirectly by addressing and supporting the self-directed learning of the students.

1.1      The Implementation of the “AVIVA+ model”
The aspects from the “AVIVA+ model” are continuously implemented as a key part of our Education Quality goals for 2023 at the Faculty of Healthcare and Paramedics Skills Education. The standardized lesson planning in theory teaching and the practical work training in our skill-labs support our capability of lesson planning and ensure the execution of all steps of the learning process. The structured and standardized lesson plans are connected through a whole module and continued throughout the whole semester and the B. Voc. Program. Our trainers teach and train to develop the competencies of our students and have connected AVIVA+ lesson plans to support the highly challenging assurance of the knowledge- transfer from the theory room to the practical training in our skills lab, industrial internship experiences and back to  the theory room and the skills lab.
1.1.1     Arriving and Engaging Phase
Internal View

  • Motivational strategies

Direct motivational strategies involve several key components. These include starting with a friendly greeting, assessing the mood of the learners, and ensuring that the lesson is presented in a clear and understandable manner. Additionally, it is important to communicate the relevance and meaning of the content being taught, as well as establish clear rules and expectations for behavior and attendance. Finally, learners should be encouraged to mentally detach themselves from personal matters and fully engage in the learning process.

  • Metacognitive strategies

Metacognitive strategies include carefully outlining the lesson plans and encouraging learners to review modules, learning materials, and worksheets. In order to facilitate learning, it is important to identify the greatest challenges, related components and balance them with easier topics to enable students comprehend them.

  • Cognitive strategies

The introduction to the lesson is given with the help of any one of the methods or through an open inquiry or by introducing a problem followed by discussion, where the learners determine the goals and procedures largely by themselves.

External View:

  • Direct procedure: An informative introduction to the lesson
  • Indirect procedure
  • Flashlight Method: The learners would assemble in small groups and express their views briefly on a topic and at the end their contributions can be discussed.
  • Ball-Bearing Method: After the students read/watch/listen to a section of text/website/audio files, the teacher divides them in groups. Half of the strength of students stand up and form a circle with their backs to the inside of the circle. They are partner A and the other half form a circle facing a partner from the first circle who is partner B.
Partner A will speak first, quickly summarizing what they discover. This takes about a minute. Then partner B speaks for the same length of time, adding to the summary.

The teacher stands in the center of the circle so he/she can easily monitor student responses.


Now it is time to move.

Have the students who are partner A raise their right hands and then move two people to the right to meet with a new partner B. Repeat the summary with partner B speaking first.


For the third move, have all students who are partner B raise their right hand and move two people to the left. After they are with a new partner, they continue with the summary with partner A speaking first.

Depending on the size of the class, teachers may have students move more or fewer times to complete the activity.

Inside-Outside Circle holds all students accountable for having something to say.

  • Knowledge pool method: The learners assemble in small groups around tables and questions such as What occurs to you when you think about the given topic Each learner receives sheets of paper on which they spontaneously write down their own ideas and then the sheets are laid down and commented on.

1.1.1     Activating Prior Knowledge
Internal View

Motivational Strategies Metacognitive Strategies Cognitive Strategies
Teachers would consciously make connections with the learners own professional or everyday experiences. Learners should be aware of their emotional state and guide it in a positive direction, ensuring that the learning challenge is not underestimated. Enable the relevant contents of the long-term memory to be gathered in the working short-term memory.

 External View

Direct procedures

  • Advance organizer- The trainer gives a brief conceptual overview of the contents of the lesson.
  • Asking questions
  • Reporting experiences
  • Brainstorming or brainwriting

Indirect procedure

  • Mapping techniques


Graphic 10, Source: (BSDU, 2023)

1.1.1     Informing
Internal View

Motivational Strategies Metacognitive Strategies Cognitive Strategies
New knowledge sets  that the teacher imparts, or that learners independently acquire are compatible with the prior knowledge.


The learner should be able to answer the following questions

What is the goal?

What should I do so that I can take in the new information?

Have I understood what the teacher has presented?

Evaluation of what more do I know than at the beginning of the information phase.

The learner should take notes, create sketches, flow charts, etc. that would support the acquisition of knowledge.

External View

Graphic 11, Source: (BSDU, 2023)
4.3.4 Processing

Internal View

Motivational Strategies Metacognitive Strategies Cognitive Strategies
Highly motivated learners would be working with less support from the teachers Less motivated learners would need close guidance.


High-performing learners would be working with less direction from the teachers.

Less performing learners would need close attention.

Milestones must be defined and criteria specified will allow the learners to measure the quality of work before the teacher gets involved.

Prompt support would be offered when the learner requires it.


External View

Direct procedure

  • Prepare a poster.
  • Write an assignment on changes in skin color and physiological and pathological causes behind it.

 Indirect procedure

  • Exercise workshop-Prepare three groups arrange materials and needed things and give tasks to the learners.
  • Learning posters- The learners receive a flipchart sheet and sketch an outline of the topic on it.

1.1.1     Evaluation
Internal View

Motivational Strategies Metacognitive Strategies Cognitive Strategies
Those who see themselves as successful in a specific area are generally more motivated to make more effort.

If the goals were formulated precisely then it can be reviewed easily in this phase.

Personalized feedback from the teacher plays an important role. Reconsidering one’s own learning progress and process.

External View

Direct procedure

  • Flash Cards: The learner prepares flash cards and note the possible answers on the back of each card.
  • Technique For creating Structure: In this task, various pictures of the steps of hand washing will be given to students and they would be asked to arrange them accordingly. Size of picture card should not exceed A6 size
  • Network: Central terms are mentioned on A4 sheets or cards by the trainer following which each learner comes and explains the terms with the help of example and then the second leaner comes and explains the relation
  • Method 66: The learners divided in groups, jointly answer a question under time pressure.

 Indirect Procedure

  • Independent Work: Let them write on the whiteboard and explain about the importance of topic.
  • Students performs the procedure one by one in the presence of trainer and does practice

Städeli, C., Grassi, A., Grassi, K. R., & Obrist, W. (2013). Kompetenzorientiert unter- richten—Das AVIVA-Modell. hep Verlag.
Waldherr, F., & Walter, C. (2009). Didaktisch und praktisch: Ideen und Methoden für die Hochschullehre. Schäffer-Poeschel.
Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W. et al. (2001). A taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.
AI-Tool "GPT-3.5" von OpenAI: OpenAI. (2021). GPT-3.5 [Software]. Chatbot "ChatGPT": ChatGPT. (2023). [Chatbot]. Unveröffentlichte Rohdaten.
DeepL GmbH. (2023). DeepL Translator [Software].
Universität Zürich. (n.d.). TeachingTools [Lehr- und Lernplattform].

Photo 03, Source: (International Council of Nurses, 2023)

6 Appendix
6.1 The two heads behind the AVIVA – model
In 2010 Christoph Staedeli and Markus Maurer, published the book “The AVIVA model - A competence-oriented approach to teaching and learning”.

Christoph Staedeli
Christoph Staedeli heads the Department of Upper Secondary and Vocational Education at the Zurich University of Teacher Education. Having taught in vocational schools for decades, he is strongly engaged in the training of vocational education teachers.

Photo 04, Source: (The Aviva-model, 2010)

Markus Maurer
Markus Maurer is a professor of vocational edu- cation at the Zurich University of Teacher Education and a recognised expert on Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Switzerland. He focuses on design and implementation of VET curricula as well as vocational skills development in international cooperation.

Photo 05, Source: (The Aviva-model, 2010)

1.1.1     The Core Concept

The core of the concept presented here is AVIVA - a five-phase model for effective teaching. It is based on findings from the psychology of learning and best practices of good teaching. The abbreviation AVIVA refers to these steps. Learning first requires the willingness to engage with something new. In order for this new knowledge to be consolidated, it needs to be deepening and practising. And finally, in learning, one will always be accountable for the path travelled before moving on to the next stage (Staedeli C., Maurer M., The AVIVA-model, Zürich, 2010).

1.1.2 Competence–oriented education

Competence-oriented teaching now entails always carefully observing the five phases of the AVIVA model when planning and conducting lessons, showing learners the path with different methods - more or less structured, depending on the learners' prerequisites - and putting them in situations that they can only master through wise resource use. The targeted (and creative) use of appropriate resources is thus what we might term (learning) competence. How techniques and resources are used (Staedeli C., Maurer M., The AVIVA-model, Zürich, 2010).

1.1.3     Not completely new, but practice-oriented

The AVIVA approach has long been used by teachers and trainers in Switzerland: They examine the curriculum's requirements (objectives and substance) as they prepare classes and think about how to rhythmize them. (Phases in the AVIVA model). The methodological strategy is then planned, and tools that learners should obtain, implement, or deepen are taken into account. The curricula and texts about teaching tools include lists of the resources that need to be purchased. The AVIVA paradigm thus is not entirely novel, but it adds the necessary (The Aviva-model, 2010).

‘The AVIVA + Model guides teachers to select appropriate methods in various phases to develop knowledge, skills and attitude.’

7  Contact Details